Business Models for Collective Governance Book Series

This piece of work desires to raise our spirit for facing the national development challenge in a grand manner. Clearly, our generation failed to deliver the prosperity all of us are supposed to be already enjoying today. Sad to say, we are unaware that the representative democracy is still enslaving us. As long as we  send the same breed of officials to positions of power, authority, and accountability; as long as we maintain a bloated and  inefficient bureaucracy; while  our country’s  educational system is inadequate in molding visionary and patriotic leaders we need;  and as our government continues in using the same business models that are  sheer symbols  of failed strategies; it is so conclusive that even the most beautiful constitution and the most efficient form of government are nothing. The destiny of our country remains uncertain if the same electorates elect the same officials. Our obligation is not to pass this misfortune to the next generation without a valiant stand.

Where are self-respect and intellectual courage if we just let our time to lapse without sincerely embracing our accountability?  What if we realize that by putting our professional qualifications, experiences, and connections together, we are much bigger and powerful and we can leave behind our culture of smallness? What if we discover that we have working tools in the form of business models that can be injected into the existing system? What if we learn that we have the easy access to the funds that are needed in rebuilding our country?  What if we confirm that we have also the access to the best technologies?  What if we discern that the collective governance model is the best platform for assimilating the new business models into the national system because we are united?  What if at this time we find out that we have already sufficient preparation? Collectively, we can! However, to be united, we need humility and resolve to be relevant to our patriotic obligations.

The collective governance model is an ancient craft practiced by our ancestors long before the invention of the written constitution and the popular forms of government. The collective governance activates action-oriented solutions through multi-stakeholder and harmonious collaborations. It is also a system that does not usurp the role of the government. On the other hand, the business models formulate high-impact infrastructure and systems that certainly we never thought we could build. However, if we act as one, there is no doubt that our collective governance capacities are adequate to achieve success.  Once we learn that we can create equal opportunities particularly for those who can best think and best work, we are prepared to assume that vital parts of the national responsibilities be placed on our collective shoulders. Eventually, we transform ourselves into collective leaders and participants in the reset of our national economy and in rebuilding our country.  Thus, this book has a special mission. It guides in building the structures and in installing the orders for the collective governance platform. This book demonstrates the contents and the structures of the business models that serve as the building blocks of inclusive development enterprises.   After introducing the application of business models (Chapter 1), the funding models are presented first (Chapter 2-6). The book ends with the integration of the business models into inclusive development enterprises (Chapter 33-36). The building and maintaining of the development infrastructure (Chapter 7-13), the integrated approach to the development of industries (Chapter 14-21), the cooperatives for economic development (Chapter 22-26), and the technical training and education solutions (Chapter 27-32) together are the pillars of multi-dimensional inclusive development agenda. Finally, the inclusive business models are continuously tested and verified by the science-based grand experiment for national development planning and management (Chapter 37); which transitions into the craft of collective governance (Chapter 38).

The structure of the book presented in the Summary Diagram and its contents by part and by chapter are shown in the next two pages.

Business Models for Collective Governance: Preface

Widespread poverty; graft and corruption; high price of food products and basic utilities; traffic congestion; high cost of college education; unemployment and underemployment; labor tenure uncertainties due to contracting practices; bureaucratic inefficiency; poor public school system; poor road and communications infrastructure; inadequate housing; poor maritime port and transport infrastructure; low manufacturing output;  population explosion; inadequate external  investment; poor urban zoning plan and compliance; inadequate rural industrialization; and low agricultural productivity are what I initially recognized when one early morning I performed a mental exercise of identifying national development problems in the Philippines. My problem identification exercise continued.  Declining fish catch; poor postharvest facilities for agricultural, fisheries, and forestry products; inadequate credit facilities; high cost of agricultural production inputs; poor coastal resources management; poor forestry resources management; inadequate flooding and drought preparedness; environmental degradation due to deforestation and mining;  lack of facilities in waste management;  air and biological pollution in congested cities;  poor services for healthcare and for the control of infectious diseases;  inadequate water and sewerage facilities; communist and Muslim insurgencies; low pension income; fake news; drug addiction; urban migration; family separation due to overseas employment; poor justice system; irresponsible electorates; and finally irresponsible journalism were added to complete my list.  On any given day, these problems are legitimate topics at home, in print and broadcast media, in government offices, in schools and universities, in the social gatherings of Filipinos in faraway foreign countries, and in the halls of our bicameral Congress.

The problems listed above as I recognized are by no means complete nor presented in distinct orders of importance and cause-and-effect relationships. As an optimist, I have long embraced the virtue of patience and I firmly believe there are available solutions to overcome our national development problems. On this basis,  I presume that the crafting of business models to be integrated into inclusive development agendas for assimilation into the existing system by way of the collective governance model is the noblest approach. After three and a half decades of experience, I  wish to deliver these experiential research and writing  works, the  “Business Models for Collective Governance.” 

In March 2003, we published three sets of a compendium of business models entitled  Modernizing Philippine Agriculture, Model Farms for Agricultural Modernization, and Model Agro-Industrial Infrastructure Systems.  After 15 years, the business models are still untouched and never been tried. In 2004  I received a piece of advice that it would take at least 10 years before the relevance of the works would be appreciated. Until today, however, there is still no plan to build the network of food postharvest handling and processing infrastructure across the country that would serve as the anchor infrastructure of the country’s national agricultural modernization program as we proposed in our model. Instead of being modernized and replicated in strategic sites, the Food Terminal Inc. (FTI) in Taguig is about to die. 

Furthermore, the highly political rice self-sufficiency goal is still elusive,  but  15 years ago, we recommended the establishment of 20 integrated milling districts for hybrid rice that would employ modern production and processing technologies with each milling district covering a service area of 15,000 hectares. We believe achieving rice self-sufficiency is a symbol of national pride and this goal must not be compromised.

From largely agricultural concerns, my exposure in the diversified areas of socioeconomic planning widened. In the year 2006, I then received advice to explore the field of international private capital. While in the process of studying this alternative funding,  I found myself gradually being engaged in the development of business models that ultimately straddle the fields of healthcare, renewable energy, electric bus transportation, training, education,  cooperatives, and regional and national planning. In the fund generation, I first received a surprise e-mail from YES Bank of India in December 2008 to introduce to the Philippines the international food park model prepared by Wageningen University and  Research of the Netherlands. At that time, India was just planning the establishment of its first mega food park. Unfortunately, the cost of the project was too high and it was difficult to introduce a project of that magnitude in the Philippines.

My serious personal journey doing research on alternative funding started when I traveled to Aachen and Cologne in Germany in May 2009 where I would be introduced to a  funding program. One evening in February  2012 at the JFK Airport in New York City, before taking their flight to Manila, I met a Swiss engaged in the international banking business with his Filipino wife and their son. My research partner, who arranged the meeting, assured me that this occasion would introduce me to the “Swiss private banker’  practice. In February 2013 we met an international lawyer in  Washington, D.C. whose expertise is on infrastructure bond and pooled financing. In February 2014, I was in Hong Kong upon the sponsorship by a group of Koreans and Chinese to help them place into fund generation program an account deposited in a  world’s top bank. While we were unsuccessful in the transaction, I found out that a  large amount of heritage fund exists. A month later in the same year,  I was introduced again to a funding program by a “Swiss private banker.”  These new acquaintances and information on private capital funding further boosted my belief that a large amount of funding is really available for the whole world to use someday.

While updating my resume one day, I realized that  15 years flew away since my last writing project and I have already adequate materials for another compendium of business models, including the results of my own research and experience on alternative funding models. However, my current concern is not just to write and publish. The most important now is to be able to demonstrate in the updated and expanded works that the business models would be funded and implemented even with little government participation.  After years of studying the alternative fund generation,  I found out that the logic of starting small would not work in the Philippines anymore.  Furthermore, starting small at this time is no longer the right way.  Inclusive development is also useless if it is not done on a grand scale.  On this basis, the first part of this work is about the application and the funding of business models in preparation for the coming years of abundance.

The Business Models as the Working Tools for  Enlightenment and Unity

The Philippines is growing in terms of the traditional indicators of socioeconomic development. However, the economic performance of the country is upsetting compared to the real value of the progress already realized by the neighboring countries in Asia.  In fact, the Philippines was more advanced economically than these countries at a certain period in our history. Why do we lag behind may require a very complex analysis of what transpired? It appears that what we really need as a nation are a collective wisdom and steadfast resolve in understanding the problems first. By aligning these virtues with our national development direction, we would be shown the ways in addressing the interrelated development problems that are both unique to the Philippines and we have in common with other people of the world; particularly those in the developing countries. Nonetheless, there is no such national development problem that can be addressed overnight.  Perhaps the belief in fast-tracked solutions to development problems is the trap that has been suppressing our relevance to national development.

This compendium of business models for development is written to inspire. Once we are united in embracing fearless imagination, creativity, and resiliency, there is no impossible dream.  However, in any great undertaking, we must be guided by a plan as an architect first draws the sketch of the edifice and then he follows it with the detailed architectural plan.

The popular cry of fighting graft and corruption has been tried for decades. Instead, the cry has become a trap rather than a unifying interest that would rebuild a nation.  Graft and corrupt practices are still existing in the more developed countries of the world but these nations are able to develop faster than us. We have been mind-conditioned that the only causes of our poor performance as a nation are graft and corruption and inequalities.  These problems are already the given coefficients in the national economic development equation. In this regard, we have to shift our focus first towards exploring economic opportunities, which then result in improving government services that end up raising people’s productivity and happiness. Then together as one nation, good governance with community participation naturally result in minimizing graft and corruption. 

After regime changes that could be the vital economic turning points in our history, first the independence from the  U.S. in  1946, and second the People Power Revolt of 1986, we were not able to transform these energies into concrete edifices. We still need to accept and wholeheartedly embrace the complex problems and prove to ourselves that we are able to face these development problems head-on.  What we really lack is the collective energy. We have already spent so much time and resources in blaming our government officials and the oligarchs without achieving the positive changes we are always hoping. It is time to think positively and explore new business models that can bring Filipinos together and work in unity instead of entrusting our destiny as a nation to our political and even religious leaders. We the people have the power and we must be always reminded of this gift from our Creator. In this regard, we have to appreciate the importance of business models as our working tools in addressing the complex development problems that exist in our country.

The Transition  to  Collective Governance 

These business models are meant to inspire, to enlighten, and finally to show the ways to endless possibilities. Furthermore, the business models as presented in this compendium still need further improvement through continuous research and development undertakings. Business models are also like living organisms as they adapt to the environment.  Together with the alternative funding options how the business models are going to be funded,  the roads towards global abundance are cleared and paved. Using the tools of scientific research, the business models are aligned together by way of development experiment. Finally, while the business models presented in this work attempt to cover the most vital enterprises for national development, this piece of work sets the trend in the development of new business models that accordingly provide every Filipino community to participate in nation-building wherever they are dispersed.  The event is the transition to the practice of  Collective Governance.

Chapter by Chapter Summary

Part I defines what is a business model; and demonstrates how it is applied in the private and the public organizations and provides alternative funding solutions that are mostly outside the domains of the traditional international and domestic funding institutions. However, these funding models provide the mechanisms for leveraging the traditional international financing facilities that are available. 

Chapter 1 reviews the available literature related to business model, in particular, its definition and application in business organizations and development enterprises.

Chapter 2 is the establishment of the Rural Infrastructure Investment Fund, which is a structured and an organized mechanism for generating and managing the funds for development enterprises.

Chapter 3 is a business model that translates all the foreign assistance for development, particularly in agricultural and rural development, into financially self-sustaining investments. The enterprise itself is directly accountable to repay the loan, not the sovereign government.

Chapter 4 introduces the application of the infrastructure bond and pooled financing facilities in building rural infrastructure. These funding facilities are available not as loans nor they do not require collaterals, and therefore the investments are off the book of the sovereign debt of the national government.

Chapter 5 introduces the “Swiss private banker” as an alternative but a reliable banking institution. Although this funding facility offers the loan secured by a sovereign guarantee or a bank guarantee, the cost of interest, the much faster time in the negotiation, and the flexible terms of repayment are highly advantageous to the projects and their intended beneficiaries, to the government, and to the partner private sector. The loan being offered is one of the best alternative funding models.

Chapter 6 discusses the on-going reset in the global financial system by presenting relatively unknown historical facts. Brief historical accounts of the Bretton Woods Conference of 1944, the Historic Bonds, the Private Placement Program, and the U.S. Petrodollar are presented. The chapter presents the reset of the global financial system as vital in the opening up of new opportunities for the funding of development undertakings all over the world.

Part II presents business models that build and maintain infrastructure vital to national development. Most of these development infrastructure models have never been tried in the Philippines according to the technologies, management systems, ownership arrangements, funding arrangements, and the monetary value and physical scale of the facilities.

Chapter 7 is a business model that creates the Engineering Brigade Development Corporation. The resulting corporation is a public-private partnership entity engaged in constructing government infrastructure projects such as roads, bridges, waste-to-energy facilities, and other vertical projects.

Chapter 8 is an infrastructure model that

builds and maintains a network of food and bioenergy park facilities for agricultural modernization. The models in the Netherlands and in India are used. These facilities serve as the core development infrastructure of the national agricultural modernization agenda of the Philippines.

Chapter 9 builds a network of waste-to-energy infrastructure that employs plasma gasification technologies or any other more advanced but economically efficient waste-to-energy technologies.

Chapter 10 is a business model that builds an assembly plant for simple knocked down (SKD) units of electric buses serving as the core infrastructure of an integrated bus assembly, bus cooperative, and bus dealership system in support of the bus and jeepney re-fleeting program in the entire country.

Chapter 11 is a model community-based research and teaching hospital infrastructure for replication in selected sites in the country, which are mostly in university towns.

Chapter 12 is a housing project, which is a planned community. This business model for housing development is supported by a warehouse store that retails housing components and materials.

Chapter 13 is a business model for an integrated infrastructure that addresses the perennial problem of flooding in the Candaba Swamp /Candaba Delta areas. At the same time, the infrastructure creates economic opportunities with an ecological dimension.

The integrated development infrastructure include flood control, irrigation, toll highway, tourism, housing, agriculture and aquaculture, and agroforestry that benefit the swamp and delta areas and the upstream communities.

Part III presents business models that follow the integrated community-based development process for specific industries in the Philippines.

It starts with an outline of the model integrated rice milling district for hybrid rice as the solution for achieving national rice self-sufficiency in Chapter 14. The integrated services in the milling district, which include seed production, farm mechanization, technology transfer, and marketing all cluster around the integrated rice processing center. The center also provides an easy access to agricultural input, credit, and marketing assistance services.

Chapter 15 builds the business infrastructure for a more efficient delivery of agricultural input and services for the users through the warehouse store approach. The business model provides alternative means of supplying farm input at a reasonable price, and at the same time, a technology transfer conduit is established.

Chapter 16 is about the development of the coconut industry. The business model focuses on the community-based approach to the rehabilitation of the industry. In the process, the model recommends the restructuring of the Philippine Coconut Authority by adopting a new business model for its transformation to become a financially self-sustaining institution.

Chapter 17 is about the model agroforestry project that employs the community-based approach using the line planting technology. This technique is a unique system in reforestation that profitably combines commercial trees and agricultural crops and incorporates site compatibility, optimum growth rates, competing for land-use, and rural income. Trees are planted in lines with a spacing arrangement of 10m X 1m or 15m X 1m, facing an East-West direction to maximize the sunlight entering the alleys.

Chapter 18 builds the community-based integrated gold mining, processing, and trading facilities to be located initially in three sites in the Philippines. The sites, one each in Mindanao, Masbate, and Cordon, Isabela are for consideration. In Mindanao, the site is in Davao del Norte for being strategically located to serve the Agusan, Surigao, and Davao Provinces.

Chapter 19 follows the community-based business model for the marketing of products from the Philippines to the U.S. and Canada through the U.S. Foreign Trade Zones. Products from the Philippines, which include mango, carrageenan from seaweeds, coconut coir fiber, abaca fiber, and bamboo are exported to the U.S. in semi-processed forms and further processed, packaged, stored, re-labeled, sorted, graded, or assembled in the U.S. FTZs to avail of duty free incentives on the one hand, and to gain better access to technological, financial, and marketing support services that are readily accessible in the U.S. on the other hand.

Chapter 20 draws the agribusiness complex business model that serves as the nucleus of an agro-industrial estate for the Sierra Madre Mountain Range area in the province of Nueva Ecija. The complex operates a feed mill, an organic fertilizer plant, and processing plants for feeds, meat, fruits, and vegetables. Ethanol distillery and bio-diesel processing plant are added in line with the development of alternative sources of energy. The center has its own research and training facilities and breeding farm with modern laboratory and equipment for the integrated production system. The business structure and the facilities serve as the nucleus agribusiness center that functionally integrates the producers in the service areas with the complex.

Chapter 21 builds an aquaculture complex with integrated operations from the hatchery to fish processing and marketing. The integrated aquaculture business is a 50-100 hectare model for replication in different sites in the Philippines, mostly in marine coastal communities. The fish complex operation is financially sustainable while it serves as the nucleus of fish farming operations in the community. The complex delivers technology  transfer, hatchery, feed formulation and milling, marketing, and processing services.

Part IV demonstrates the role of cooperatives in the development of the Philippines by setting up a national cooperative modernization direction focused on the crafting of cooperative business models.

Chapter 22 develops model cooperatives for the various sectors of the national economy. These sectors include the agriculture, manufacturing, banking, tourism, health, housing, transportation, and education sectors. The agenda suggests the experimentation of various models across the different geographic regions of the country.

Chapter 23 builds a national bus cooperative that becomes one of the pioneers in the operations of electric buses for the principal purpose of contributing to the long-term national goal of re-fleeting the buses, jeepneys, and commuter vans with more comfortable and ecologically compliant electric buses.

Chapter 24 is a generic model for a commercial cooperative bank using the Cooperative Rural Bank of Nueva Ecija, the first cooperative rural bank in the Philippines, as the model. The objective of the business model is to contribute to the reformation of rural production and marketing cooperatives and cooperative banking through organizational and management reforms.

Chapter 25 is a tripartite business model among the cooperatives, the private sector, and the government sector in line with the development of the onion industry in the Philippines. The Onion and Cold Storage Corporation (OCSCOR) is established for the tripartite business arrangement. Onion contract growing and cold storage operations are the principal business interests of OCSCOR. The tripartite arrangement includes the establishment of the Onion Industry Investment Fund and the creation of the Onion Research and Development Center as a public-private partnership institution model.

Chapter 26 forms an umbrella cooperative for the veterinary and animal husbandry services providers. By still maintaining their own operations and guided principally by the ‘one man one vote’ practice in a cooperative, subsidiary units for veterinary drug importation and manufacturing, animal breeding, feed processing, waste management, and financing are established by the umbrella cooperative as semi-autonomous business operations.

Part V demonstrates business models that apply education and training solutions to national socio-economic development problems. The models are financially self-sustaining training and educational institutions that embrace innovations leading to educational reforms in the Philippines. This part also includes the upgrading and the promotion of Philippine Studies internationally by the establishment of the Philippine Studies Center in the U.S.

In Chapter 27, the training center for welders is crafted to align itself with employment opportunities for welders in the manufacturing, heavy equipment, mining, oil refinery, shipbuilding, and construction industries, both locally and internationally.

In Chapter 28, a model science education center is designed for the Central Luzon Region in partnership with the Science High School of the Central Luzon State University. The facilities in the center include the training center and dormitories, the publishing house, and the science museum. The main objective of the center is to be the model facilities for the training of teachers who are going to train the next generation of students and fellow teachers.

Chapter 29 is about the establishment of the College of Business and Public Governance (CBPG) that serves as the anchor institution of the Global University Program in the Philippines. This new global educational institution offers degree courses granted by foreign universities. The model is patterned after the Singapore Institute of Management, an institution that offers courses of universities from the U.S., Australia, UK, and India. As the anchor college, CBPG focuses its teaching, research, and practical training specializations in the two intertwined academic fields of business and public governance.

Chapter 30 is a model self-sustaining state university, the Central Luzon State University. The university agenda includes the upgrading of its existing academic and research programs and the expansion program to offer other fields of Engineering and new programs in Medicine, Law, and Development Studies. The agenda employs corporate governance to become a financially self-sustaining state-run or public university.

Chapter 31 transforms the Agricultural Economics studies in the University of the Philippines Los Baños as the cutting-edge research and academic program that unites all the academic and research programs of the university into a national undertaking for agricultural and rural development.

Chapter 32 builds the Philippine Studies Center in the U.S., preferably in collaboration with Cornell University. The center promotes research and academic undertakings covering Philippine History, Culture and Society, Geography, Economics, Politics and Governance, Agricultural and Rural Development, Science and Technology, Education, Arts and Literature, and Business. The motto of the center is “Any person can contribute to any study for Philippine development,” which is consistent with the “any person can find any instruction in any study” motto of Cornell University.

Part VI demonstrates the integration of the business models for inclusive development planning and policy experiment.

The integration part starts by crafting the provincial investment agenda model for the island province of Masbate in Chapter 33. Geographically, the province is the central hub of the Philippine nautical highway system. The investment projects that are identified straddle the areas of agricultural support services, environmental management, financial services, infrastructure, tourism, rural industries, and healthcare.

Chapter 34 is a national investment agenda, the Solidaridad 2020 Investment Agenda. Its goal is to establish self-propelling communities and industries via new and grand socio-economic enterprises. The agenda is divided into four parts as follows:

  • Agenda 1 is the Solidaridad 2020 Main Agenda, which clusters around the food and bio-energy parks in strategic locations. This network of modern facilities provides structure and order for national agro-industrial development.
  • Agenda 2 is the Solidaridad 2020 River Basin Agenda, which provides the geographical and physical planning dimensions to the national development agenda by being guided by regulatory uses of the resources of the 19 major rivers basins of the Philippines for economic and sustainable environmental utilization purposes.
  • Agenda 3 is the Solidaridad 2020 Inter-island Agenda, which modernizes the maritime infrastructure nationwide, particularly all ports in the country, including fish ports; and includes the building of interisland bridges connecting the islands, and other development infrastructure in the priority islands.
  • Agenda 4 is the Solidaridad 2020 Urban Agenda, which transforms the urban communities by simplifying the project planning and set up investment funds for upgrading clean water system, sustainable transport, solid waste management and waste-to-energy, sustainable healthcare, food retailing, vocational training, and urban planning and financing.

Chapter 35 builds the framework for integrating business models in adopting the economic warfare solution in line with addressing the insurgencies and for national security by using the reconstruction Marawi as the model.

Chapter 36 is an inclusive disaster preparedness business model that transforms the problem of the scarcity of water brought by the El Niño climatic phenomenon into opportunities. These opportunities utilize agricultural technologies and management strategies that transform scarce water resources during drought to be productive.

Chapter 37, is a framework for project planning, budgeting, and implementation by way of a grand experiment that continuously tests and verifies the business models in the context of inclusive national development.

Finally, in Chapter 38, this concluding chapter transforms the business models and the resulting inclusive development models into socioeconomic enterprises through collective governance.


The grid lines superimposed on the map of the archipelago of the Philippines symbolize “the grand experiment for inclusive development” that eventually transitions into “collective governance.”   The gridlines also signify the application of two most basic principles in  experimental design, which are replication and randomization. Together with the resulting rectangular cells, the grid lines also serve  as the rules and guides in conducting  experiments for purposes of continuously verifying and testing the business models.    Individually, the  operational structure of  every business model is aligned  towards its efficient and effective adaptation to the target geographical areas and across the country’s population. The components and the systems in the operational structure are treated as variables in the  testing and verification processes. These variables include  project ownership arrangement, management strategies, organizational structure, technology, funding arrangement, community participation, government ownership and control, research and product development system, foreign investment and ownership,  private sector participation, project sustainability design, and other operational variables  within the  business model. As experiments continue, every  inclusive development agenda undergoes the more complex and detailed testing and verification. The benefits derived from the  permutations and combinations of the components within a particular business model  are calculated. The spatial placements and the  temporal sequencing within the business model and the integrated business models in the  inclusive development framework are also examined. The  application of  statistical tools, geographic information system,  action research, case studies, systems analysis, operations research, economic surveys, and other traditional and innovative research tools ensure  accurate results and analysis. In effect, the rectangular cells, which are  connected together by  the grid lines to form one whole,   serve as the fundamental structure that holds the functional systems together. This structure is also continuously tested for its strength and stability.  The system of development experiment that progressively evolved  builds harmonious collaboration among the stakeholders. The active and the broad-based participation in the development process  ensure equitable distribution of benefits. Consequently, these right proportions and arrangements of business models form a  structure of  beauty, which everybody  appreciates.  Finally, in the transformation of the business models to inclusive enterprises, the grid lines and the rectangular cells become the symbol of collective governance. 

Interview With Marina Carnwath, Communication and Alumni Officer at British Chevening Scholarships, London

Highlights of Interview with Marina Carnwath by Skype, March 13, 2020

On March 13, 2020, Marina Carnwath interviewed this author regarding the Business Models for Collective Governance book series that we are going to launch. The interview is in line with featuring the work in the British Chevening Scholarships Newsletter. “The scholarship is the UK government’s international awards programme aimed at developing global leaders. Funded by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) and partner organizations, Chevening offers two types of award – Chevening Scholarships and Chevening Fellowships – the recipients of which are personally selected by British embassies and high commissions throughout the world. Chevening offers a unique opportunity for future leaders, influencers, and decision-makers from all over the world to develop professionally and academically, network extensively, experience UK culture, and build lasting positive relationships with the UK. Since 1983, over 50,000 professionals have studied in the UK through Chevening. Our impact report gives you an insight into some of the inspirational successes that the Chevening community has achieved, and the difference they continue to make all around the world.
( )

I was with the 1990-91 batch of the Chevening Scholarships Programme (called then as Foreign and Commonwealth Office Scholarships) from the Philippines. I attended the Centre for Development Studies of the University of Wales Swansea (now Swansea University). Shiela Coronel, who went to the London School of Economics, is nationally known in the Philippines and abroad in the field of journalism belongs to this batch. She is now Dean of the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism.

These are the highlights of my talk with Marina Carnwath.

  • As I already provided Marina with a one-paragraph description of the book including its chapter by chapter summary, she first asked me how I was able to come up with the work. I answered her that it is a result of my 30 years of experience in development works. I told her that I realized that I have covered a wide scope and it was about time to put everything together after I completed my last development consulting assignment in Fiji in 2016.
  • I told her that I did research about collective governance, which guided me in putting my works together. However, I asked for assistance also from the British Chevening Fund but was not granted. I still proceeded on the compendium of business models on my own.
  • I informed her that I am planning to utilize the network of Chevening alumni for purposes of replicating the writing of the book in different countries.
  • The project can be started in Southeast Asia by starting in Thailand and find ways how the different business models articulated in the book can be funded and implemented through collective efforts by the Chevening alumni in the region, who are also dispersed in different fields.
  • I also told her that the business models are just combined with old business models using new technologies. The most important is just following how old business models were structured.
  • Finally, I promised to send her a concept paper on the establishment of a hotel to be established in strategic cities of the world where Chevening alumni could meet and establish the connection. It is a business and international training center.


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